A market-oriented economy likewise called capitalist economy is one in which all financial activities are organized through the marketplace. A market is a location where sellers and purchasers satisfy together and through the free interaction they sell or purchase the products or services.
Free enterprise: A free enterprise economy counts on prices to figure out where demand needs to be filled and to exactly what extent.
To lower the disorders like inequalities of cost, earnings, monopolies, unemployment, exploitation of the poor by the rich, Government is obliged to intervene in the economy and regulate the marketplace mechanism through state control and planning.
A centrally planned economy is one in which all important activities are planned and chosen by the government or the main planning authority. To pick and the option is the essence of an economic activity. To plan is to show a purpose. Here the central authority usually called planning commission appointed by Government solve the main problems of ‘what, exactly how and for whom to produce’ by the mindful decisions taken by them.
The planning Commission chooses just how much must be produced/consumed and which products are to be produced in the economy within an offered period of time. The issue of the best ways to produce is fixed by selecting the method of manufacturing to be embraced in the factories possessed by the government. Given that these factories are possessed by the Government they choose the payment for numerous skills and compensation for other elements of production. This resolves the problem of ‘for whom to produce’.
It is the Central Planning Authority, which solves all the central problems by including the solutions in the plan itself. It is to be noted that China and Soviet Union were centrally planned economies in the past, however today they are moving towards the Market System.
Today there is no economy which is hundred percent market oriented or centrally planned due to the fact that both the government sector and economic sector plays more or less equal functions in the performance of the economy. Modern economies are mixed economies in which main problems are solved partially with market/price mechanism and partly through direct planning.